Tips: TESOL for Young Learners

Some insights based on Chapter One, Teaching Languages to Young Learners, by Lynne Cameron.

* broad discourse (preface)
* broad lexical teaching
* learning-centered
* focus-changing
* constructing meaning for activities
* meaningful language use
* task-focused
* learning-centered is not learner-centered
* not to follow the child, but to have the longer view (2)
* not to have fun activities, but to have meaningful ones
* Piaget: active construction (3)
* Piaget: internalized, action to thought, assimilation (fork), accommondation (spoon)
* Implication from Piaget
** staged learning (4)
** sense-maker
** active learner
** limited experience is the key we should consider
** giving more opportunities/affordances to children
* Vygotsky (5)
** social
** language as a tool (words lebel concepts) (18)
** inner speech
** instruction and mediation are important (6)
** ZPD (what a child can do with skilled help, useful measure of ability)
** thinking of the new language as a set of words (7)
** meaningful interaction moving to transform/internalization
* Bruner (8)
** make interesting tasks
** setting the goals
** frustration control
** organized tasks
** scaffolding (talk that supports)
** lang. as a tool for cognitive growth
** routines = opportunities for meaningful language development (11)
* use children’s experience/background knowledge (20)
* environment/opportunities creating
* indivisible (language skills)
* not too focus on literacy teaching (written language)

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