* Goals: Language, Ideas, skills, text(discourse)
* Types: interactional, transactional
* Functions: fact, intellect, emotion, moral, suasion, social
** Experience: focuse on the language goal.
** Shared: group working.
*** co-operating. ex: group composition
*** Combining. ex: strip story
*** Superior-inferior. ex: story re-construction
*** Individual. ex: role-play
** Guided: exercises used to guide the learners.
** Independent: no planned help. learners should have some proficiency and skills in the language.
*** provides a reasonable challenge.
*** tasks that leaners may face outside of the class.
* Grouping: co-operative, combining, superior-inferior, individual
* Situations: School, community
* input: tape, peers, teacher, visits, visitors
(from Nation, 1992 Teaching Listening and Speaking, OP No 14, VUW)