Story and theme-based teaching

Story

* can be integrated with themes
* Ts should make the content accessible to learners
* Ts should offer more practice opportunities
* metaphors for society
* Discourse organisation:
** opening
** characters
** setting
** problem
** events
** resolution
** closing
** moral
* Features for stories:
** dramatic irony (readers know more than the characters)
** predictability (lock-step progression)
** surprise event
* Language use:
** parallelism
** rich vocabulary
** alliteration
** contrast
** metaphor
** inter-textuality (shared cultural knowledge)
** narrative (past tense) and dialogue (whichever tense is suitable to the situation)
* Quality:
** stories should be resemblance/familiar to children
** good content
** good organisation
** no bias
* How to choose:
** real/schemes
** engage leaners
** values are acceptable
** prototypical format is better
** balance between dialogue and narrative
** language use (grammatical patterns)
** new language (lexical sets)
* Design:
** brainstorming
** acting
** retelling
** rearrangement of sentences
** use in other contexts
** sound exploiting
** discussion session
** writing reflections

Theme-based teaching:

* ispiring or chaotic
* Ts should keep student actively learning
* keep the interest of Ss
* from late 1960s in the UK
* Theme-based = Topic-based
** choose a theme
** plan activities
** relate the activities to other subject areas.
** discourse types
** situations
* can generate a long ist of activities
* can be applied to whole language education
* activity-based
* Planning:
# advance vs. online planning (choice points)
## direction
## activity
## timing
# find a theme (Ts and Ss cooperate)
# planning content
## people
## objects
## actions
## processes
## typical events
## places
# finding types of discourse and group them into sub-themes
## brainstorming
## webbing
## additional: new vocabulary teaching
# forming questions (the end of forming content to be taught)
# design language learning tasks (bring a language learning perspective)
# organise tasks into stages
# design activities for tasks
# find discourse types of the activities
# thing about the timing
* Learning language (language aspects):
** seize the opportunity to help Ss to notice and use the language.
** talk, stories, songs, vocabulary development, grammar knowledge
** old themes to new words, old words to new themes
** communicative stretching (conveying)
** discourse skills
** using info texts
** precision in language use
** outcomes and products (performance, display, record, book-making) can be elicitated, they are motivating Ss.
* Incresing target language use:
** inserting choices (bulding choice points)
** giving feedback (give more amound of practicing new language)
** T intervention (monitoring Ss)
** private speech (give more amound of practicing new language)
** background language exposure (give more amound of practicing new language)

Thoughts based on Chapter 7-8, “Teaching Languages to Young Learners," by Lynne Cameron.

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