Grammar Teaching

依H教授的說法,文法教學主要經歷了四個主要的歷程:

# TG: Traditional Grammar
# SG: Structural Grammar
# TGG: Tranformational-Generative Grammar
# FG: Functional Grammar

四種不同的Approaches ,差別可從幾個面向來分析:

# Approach (General Philosophy)
# Method ( The Teaching Procedure)
# Techniques (How to Interact with Students)

TGG 和 FG 的界限比較糢糊,個人覺得 Cook 在書裏談的時候,把 TGG 和 FG 混在一起討論是比較好的方式。

Keywords:

* TG: Greek, Latin grammar, armchair grammarians, no theory, prescriptive, written language, sentence analyses, deductive, explicit, rote learning, accuracy, reading and writing, easy and cheap to teach, effective in low-level grammar, easy to assess, allowing L1.

* SG: behaviourist, corpus-based, spoken, descriptive (not judgemental compared with TG), drills, Audiolingualism, sentence-based, focus on L2, inductive, listening–>speaking–>reading–>writing

* TGG: Chomsky, Language Acquisition Device (LAD), Generative Grammar, indirect, language exposure, strong version of CLT, focus on meanings, authentic, intuitive, focus on deep structure (competence) rather than performance (surface structure).

* FG: context is important, focus on language functions, communicative, weak version of CLT, task-based, Notional-Functional syllabus, discourse level of language.

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